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Kuşadası and Its Neighborhood – Antique Cities in Proximity of Kuşadası

Kuşadası and Its Neighborhood – Antique Cities in Proximity of Kuşadası

PYGELA
This antique city was established on the hill where today’s Club Pigale and Disco and A'la Carte Restaurant of the Kuştur Holiday Clubs are located. Pygela is the world’s very first health city. The King of Argos, Agamemnon, founded the Pigale in Kuşadası and Agamemnon City in İzmir specifically “to rest his soldiers and to fix his armada” during the Trojan Wars which lasted for almost ten tyears.

Both cities succeeded in improving the soldiers’ mental and physical health which had deteriorated during war with the help of the healing spring waters available in their proximity. The Çam Port, where Pine Bay Holiday Club is today, and the pond-swamp behind where Tusan Hotel is located presently were used as a port and the shipyard of Pigale City respectively. At a later date the Pigale Health City and Port became the resting and entertainment place for the soldiers of Alexander the Great who came to Ephesus.

ANAIA - ANEA (SOĞUCAK) – KADI FORTRESS
This coastal town in the Carta area right across the Samos Island was an e commercial centre as well as shelter for pirate ships owing to its convenient structure. During the Anaia Athens-Spartan Wars (B.C. 431-404), this area was occupied by the banished and fugitive people from Samos who supported Athens and who were enemies to them. The people here were supporting Spartans against Samos rulers and the Athenians. The name of this city is associated and known for the events which took place in Thukydides during the era. By 1304, Anea (Kadıkalesi), and the nearby Necropolis not only hosted a Genoese colony but was under Byzantium Ruling also. The Genoese and the native Greeks living in Anea City was also known to have organised pirate attacks against Venetian commercial ships shortly after the Kemalpaşa (Nif) convention. Ania was included in the Turkish territory after Ephesus and İzmir in 1317.

 

PANIONION 
The centre of the semi-religious and semi-political Paionion Union comprised of 12 Ionian cities was located in the "Karyon - Otomatik Tepe" of Kale Tepe situated within borders of the Dilek Peninsula National Park in the Güzelçamlı District. Otomatik Tepe is a sacred place consisting of only one site. Around 700 B.C., the delegates of 12 city-states held regular meetings on certain days of a year in the district of Panionion and took major political decisions there. The purpose of the famous ritual sacrifices made on behalf of  Helikonios,, (also known as Sea-God Poseidon) carried out by the lonian troops in this sacred area was so to discuss state-cities, make recommendations and reach mutual decisions together related to the cities.  Panionion was known as a prognostic centre as well. For better prognostic ritual, it was necessary to offer the lungs of sacrificed animals to God in one piece.

NEAPOLIS 
Neapolis is located in the south of the Güvercin Island like another peninsula in the area and was one of the first settlement areas of Kuşadası established by Ionians in ancient period. Antique city remains is still in existence under the sea today.

ILICA HILL
The Achaeans settled in in Ilıca when they first migrated to the western Anatoli. The ruins found on the 11 Hills can be considered as evidence that there was a settlement in Kuşadası as far back as 3000 years ago. Walls structured from large rocks can still be seen standing today. 

HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND MOSQUES

GÜVERCİNADA
This is a small island located on the Kuşadası Coast and is connected to the mainland via a breakwater. The island hosts a fortress built in the Byzantium period. The island performed an outpost task during Ottoman Empire times and especially against attacks expected from Greek Islands during the Mora revolt. Furthermore, since the island was utilized in efforts against pirates, it is also referred as the “Pirate Castle” by community. The fortress was renovated, illuminated and put in service for tourism purposes. 

ÖKÜZ MEHMED PASHA CARAVANSARY (KURŞUNLU HAN)
The Caravansary was built for the purposes of sea trading by Öküz Mehmed Pasha and was constructed as two floors and a yard in 1618. (According to some local myths, it was not built by Aydın Governor Öküz Mehmed Pasha but was repaired by him after he returned from a military campaign in Syria in 1607. The bastions and the crenels in Kurşunlu Han indicate that the fortress underwent serious battles. The yard measured approximately 28.50 M x 21.60 M and is surrounded by porches and rooms on both floors. Existence of this Caravansary suggests that Kuşadası was located on the end of one of the caravan paths in the Ottoman Empire and Kuşadası was an export harbour for commercial goods sent from inner Anatolia. The building is described in “Seyahatname” written by traveller Evliya Çelebi in detail. The structure was leased and renovated by "Club Mediterranee" in 1966 and opened as “Tourism” hospitality facility. Today the management of this magnificent and historical building shall be carried out by the Kuşadası Municipality as an establishment which shall be befitting to its original identity.

FORTRESS GATE
During Kuşadası’s Christian era, the fortress walls, which were built in square form,  had tree access gates on them.. These fortress gates were clinched on very thick timbers and were plated with 5 mm-thick metal sheets. The existing fortress gate is the last one still among these. According to the local myths, people who pass underneath this gate can never leave Kuşadası and become one its permanent residents. Increasing population of the city strongly supports this belief.

ROMAN BATH 
Since the ancient ages, people have adopted to the principle of living in close proximity of nature and succeeded in finding natural remedies for a number of diseases through careful observations. Here in the Ionian and Roman Periods, Kuşadası and its neighbouring areas provided cures to people through Pygela and the Roman Baths. The Roman Bath which was constructed on top of the therapeutic spring during the most prosperous period of Ephesus and  was known to have cured all types of skin ailments in its time still exists in a derelict state on the skirts of the Ilıca Hill today.

KURŞUNLU MONASTERY
Kurşunlu Monastery is situated 600 m above the sea, overlooking the sea behind the district of Davutlar. This monastery close to Ephesus is an excellent example of Byzantium architecture in the region which received a significant number of Christian migration in the 8thCentury. The reason for the monastery was established at this distance was to protect it from attacks of pagans and to use it for educational purposes.

AQUADUCTS (AQUADUCE)
In the very ancient times, fresh water was carried from Kuşadası to Ephesus by means of aqueducts. Kinkirdos spring located in Değirmendere District reached Ephesus by travelling 45 km along straits and hills through such aqueducts. . In the Ottoman period, Öküz Mehmed Pasha built aqueducts to bring water from Burgaz to Kuşadası. Majority of these aqueducts are still intact today.

ANDIZ TOWER
Andız Tower is located on skirts of the Pilav Mountain on the Atatürk Road from Kuşadası to Aydın Highway. In 2000 B.C., Legel of Karia and a small group of Lydians who migrated from central Anatolia settled in this district. No findings of this small society who lived on agricultural achievements for many long years has reached our era of today. It is presumed that Andız Tower was a watch tower from Hellenistic Period. Precursor Turks who settled in this area initially did so for safety reasons but moved nearer the coastline when the Ottoman conquered Kuşadası in 1423. Ece district located near this area was one of the first Turkmen settlements in Kuşadası also.

KALE İÇİ MOSQUE
Kale İçi Mosque and the Caravanseari was built by Öküz Mehmed Pasha in the 17th Century. This is most remarkable mosque of Kuşadası City. It is structured in square form and has a large dome which covers the main worship area. The walls of the mosque rises in two stages and end with flat mouldings. The final community section in Baghdadi style on the northern face of the mosque was added after its renovation in 1830. Dome frame with 12 arches on the square site was supported with fringed buttress at four corners. Wings of the main entrance door of the mosque are ornamented with geometrical joints and pearly inlays.
Öküz Mehmet Pasha started construction of Kurşunlu Han (the Caravansary) together with Kale İçi Bath and the Mosque. Ilyas Aga, Muğla Sanjak Beg, contributed to these efforts by the construction of a library and filling it with both scientific and Islamic resources before opening it to the community.

HANIM MOSQUE
Hanım Mosque was built in 1658 by Haji Hatice Hatun (wife of the Söke County protector İlyas Aga.)

HADJI IBRAHIM MOSQUE
Haji Ibrahim Mosque was built by a local gentry by the name of İbramaki. Whereas the construction year is unknown it is known to have been repaired in 1952.

TURKMEN MOSQUE
Turkmen Mosque was built by Turkomen sect leaders in 1650 and was repaired in 1952.

CAMİATİK MOSQUE
The builder of the mosque is unknown, however it was renovated in 1952.

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